( See Filosofía)



D. Anthony Storm's Commentary on Kierkegaard

"This web site is primarily devoted to developing an online commentary on the writings of the nineteenth century existentialist philosopher Søren Aabye Kierkegaard. Also provided are an introduction to Kierkegaard's method of authorship (including a secondary essay) and a Primer on Kierkegaardian Motifs, which serves as an introduction to his thought. Other resources include a brief biography of his life, a chronology, a bibliography, images, and links." A very well organized and thorough site.


Ethics Updates

Maintained by Lawrence M. Hinman, Professor of Philosophy at the University of San Diego. An extensive gathering of links in various theoretical and applied categories.


Early Modern Texts

"Here are versions of some classics of early modern philosophy, prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving intact the main arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought." This site includes texts by: Bacon, Berkeley, Descartes, Hobbes, Hume, Kant, Leibniz, Locke, Malebranche, Mill, Reid, and Spinoza. Maintained by

Jonathan F. Bennett.


Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

Edited by James Fieser (University of Tennessee at Martin), the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a growing collection of articles on many figures and topics; it seeks contributions from professional philosophers.



Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edited by Edward N. Zalta (Stanford University), the Stanford Encyclopedia is a 'dynamic' encyclopedia of philosophy that is responsive to new research -- authors have ftp access to their entries to keep them up-to-date and a select Board of Editors monitors and referees all entries and updates.


Project Wittenberg



Project Wittenberg is home to works by and about Martin Luther and other Lutherans. Here you will find all manner of texts from short quotations to commentaries, hymns to statements of faith, theological treatises to biographies, and links to other places where words and images from the history of Lutheranism live.


Project Wittenberg is the first step towards an international electronic library of Lutheranism. As such, we are always adding and changing our sites. This site contains Project Wittenberg texts in final form. For the latest versions of our texts, many of which are still being assembled and refined, drop in at Project Wittenberg's Electronic Lutheran Web.


Confessions of Augustine: An Electronic Edition

This site offers the text of the Confessions in Latin, with extensive critical commentary by Prof. James O'Donnell. For advanced students.


The Confessions of Augustine

This document is an on-line reprint of Augustine: Confessions, a text and commentary by James J. O'Donnell (Oxford: 1992; ISBN 0-19-814378-8). The text and commentary were encoded in SGML by the Stoa Consortium in co-operation with the Perseus Project; the HTML files were generated from the archival SGML version.



Trials of a Nascent Phenomenologist by Micah L. Issitt

   Issitt is a biology major at the University of Missouri in St. Louis. He is interested in phenomenological approaches to nature and environmental issues, particularly Goethean science. In the future, we will be publishing some of his field essays dealing with real-world experiences and understandings of the natural world [see EAP, winter 2003]. To suggest the perceptive power of the kind of observation he argues for here, we include at the end of his essay a description he wrote of a swarm of locust in a cornfield. © 2002, 2003 Micah Issitt.


Anselm´s Philosophy

   Medieval Sourcebook
       Anselm (1033-1109): Introduction to His Writings

THE present volume of St. Anselm's most important philosophical and theological writings contains: (1) The Proslogium (2) the Monologium, (3) the Cur Deus Homo, and (4) by way of historical complement, an Appendix to the Monologium entitled In Behalf of the Fool by Gaunilo, a monk of Marmoutiers.

The Aesthetics of Decay, by Dylan Trigg



In The Aesthetics of Decay, Dylan Trigg confronts the remnants from the fallout of post-industrialism and postmodernism. Through a considered analysis of memory, place, and nostalgia, Trigg argues that the decline of reason enables a critique of progress to emerge. In this ambitious work, Trigg aims to reassess the direction of progress by situating it in a spatial context. In doing so, he applies his critique of rationality to modern ruins. The derelict factory, abandoned asylum, and urban alleyway all become allies in Trigg's attack on a fixed image of temporality and progress. The Aesthetics of Decay offers a model of post-rational aesthetics in which spatial order is challenged by an affirmative ethics of ruin.






Schopenhauer and the sublime  Pleasure of Tragedy, by Dylan Trigg

   Volume 28, Number 1, April 2004, E-ISSN: 1086-329X Print ISSN: 0190-0013

   DOI: 10.1353/phl.2004.0018


More about Trigg:  Selected Essays

"The Place of Trauma: Memory, Hauntings, and the Temporality of Ruins" in Memory Studies, Vol. 2, Issue: 1, 2009
"Place Becomes the Law" in Griffith Law Review, Vol. 17, Issue: 2, 2008

"Altered Place: Nostalgia, Topophobia, and the Unreality of Memory" in Journal for the Society of Existential Analysis, Vol. 18, Issue: 1, 2008.
"Furniture Music, Hotel Lobbies, and Banality: Can we Speak of a Disinterested Space?" in Space and Culture, Vol. 9: Issue 4, 2006
"Memories in Site: Towards a Renewed Understanding of Starbucks" in Environmental and Architectural Phenomenology,  Vol. 17: Issue 1, 2006
"The Everyday Uncanny: Cezanne and Merleau-Ponty on Art" in Naked Punch Vol. 1: Issue 4, 2005
"Ambiguous Boundaries: Cane Hill and the Resistance of Space" for Architecture Week, 2005
From the Divine to the Dissolute: Schopenhauer and Death in Venice" in Consciousness, Literature and the Arts, Vol. 5: Issue, 1, 2004
"Hegel and the Pathway to Despair" in Meteorite, Vol.1, Issue 4, 2004

Mimesis and the Representation of Reality: A Historical World View
E Mathijs, B Mosselmans - Foundations of Science, 2000 - Springer
   ABSTRACT. The representation of reality is a fundamental concept in the perception of the world. Its historical consideration leads to an understanding of historical and contemporary culture.



Aristotle defines philosophy in terms of essence, saying that philosophy is "the science of the universal essence of that which is actual". Plato had defined it as the "science of the idea", meaning by idea what we should call the unconditional basis of phenomena.



The immediate starting-point of Plato's philosophical speculation was the Socratic teaching. In his attempt to define the conditions of knowledge so as to refute sophistic scepticism, Socrates had taught that the only true knowledge is a knowledge by means of concepts. Without philosophy thoughts are, as it were, cloudy and indistinct: its task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries.


    Plato: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

  The Stanford Encyclopedia is a 'dynamic' encyclopedia of philosophy that is responsive to new research -- authors have ftp access to their entries to keep them up-to-date and a select Board of Editors monitors and referees all entries and updates.


  Socrates was, above all things, a reformer. He was alarmed at the condition of affairs in Athens, a condition which he was, perhaps, right in ascribing to the Sophists. They taught that there is no objective standard of the true and false, that that is true which seems to be true, and that that is false which seems to be false.


Stoics and Stoic Philosophy

  The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the Athenian schools (A.D. 429), (it took the name from the Stoa poikile, the painted hall or colonnade in which the lectures were held.) Its history may be divided into three parts: (1) Ancient Stoicism; (2) Middle Stoicism; (3) New Stoicism.




L.Wittgenstein, Tractatus 4.112



The book deals with the problems of philosophy, and shows, I believe, that the reason why these problems are posed is that the logic of our language is misunderstood. The whole sense of the book might be summed up in the following words: what can be said at all can be said clearly, and what we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence.
On the other hand the truth of the thoughts that are here communicated seem to me unassailable and definitive. I therefore believe myself to have found, on all essential points, the final solution of the problems. And if I am not mistaken in this belief, then the second thing in which the value of this work consists is that it shows how little is achieved when these problems are solved.
English online editions of the Tractatus are available from several places:


        By Bertrand Russell       


Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, whether or not it prove to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an important event in the philosophical world. Starting from the principles of Symbolism and the relations which are necessary between words and things in any language, it applies the result of this inquiry to various departments of traditional philosophy, showing in each case how traditional philosophy and traditional solutions arise out of ignorance of the principles of Symbolism and out of misuse of language.The logical structure of propositions and the nature of logical inference are first dealt with. Thence we pass successively to Theory of Knowledge, Principles of Physics, Ethics, and finally to the Mystical (das Mystische).


The object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts.

Philosophy is not a theory but an activity.

A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations.

The result of philosophy is not a number of "philosophical propositions", but to make propositions clear.

Philosophy should make clear and delimit sharply the thoughts which otherwise are, as it were, opaque and blurred.


Hannah Arednt and Modernity

  Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) is widely considered to be one of the most original and provocative philosophers of the post-World War II period



     A state on trial: Hannah Arendt vs. the state of Israel, by Idith Zertal

        WHETHER SHE LIKED IT OR NOT, ARENDT WAS AN EXCEPTIONAL WOMAN in her own way, as much as she was, apparently, malgre elle, an "exception Jewess."  And equipped precisely with both just qualities and reputations she burst into the national classroom to wreak havoc as Israel's mythical founder and political leader, David Ben-Gurion, was holding his last great national undertaking, the Eichmann trial.

    Hanna Arednt and the Founding of Israel


    Martin Heidegger as a phenomenologist

The Catastrophy of  Liberation , by Herbert Marcuse:
    One-Dimensional Man
, (Boston: Beacon, 1964)


Jura gentium
     Rivista di filosofia del diritto internazionale e della politica  globale
        Jura Gentium / Pagina iniziale / Rubriche / Pensare il Mediterraneo /
        Sfide e prospettive per un'identità mediterranea "plurale"
        Stefania Panebianco
    Society is what people make of it (Wendt, 1999: 332)

Assuring Homogeneity
The Myth of Causality

    Causality is an abstract ideal that is meaningless in practice.




Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


 [...] recent social theory has formulated a more precise concept of globalization than those typically offered by pundits. Although sharp differences continue to separate participants in the ongoing debate, most contemporary social theorists endorse the view that globalization refers to fundamental changes in the spatial and temporal contours of social existence [...]


Confucian Ethics and the Tao    (Master Kung - Philosopher and Sage)

Eleven Chuang-tzu Chapters


            Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole.



            There is wide agreement that a term is vague to the extent that it has borderline cases. This makes the notion of a borderline case crucial in accounts of vagueness.


        Kant´s Moral Philosophy




Early Modern Philosophy

"Here are versions of some classics of early modern philosophy,prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving intact the main arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought." This site includes texts by: Bacon, Berkeley, Descartes, Hobbes, Hume, Kant,Leibniz, Locke, Malebranche, Mill, Reid, and Spinoza.


Francis Bacon     George Berkeley       Descartes      Jonathan Edwards     Thomas Hobbes

Hume       Kant      Leibniz      John Locke    Malebranche     Spinoza 

John Stuart Mill   Isaac Newton     Richard Price    Thomas Reid    Adam Smith 








     The Internet Encyclopaedia

         James Fieser, Ph.D., founder and general editor

Bradley Dowden, Ph.D., general editor

Edited by James Fieser (University of Tennessee at Martin), the Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy is a growing collection of articles on many figures and topics; it seeks contributions from professional philosophers.




Educational Gazette


The Educational Gazette(EG) is a collaborative, computer-supported House Organ journal published by EMTF. In order to support the process of collaborative work, contributors  with different backgrounds and living in different regions of the world are welcome.

Contributions to EG focus on essays, reviews, debates and interviews about educational issues and their related subjects. It is aimed at keen or studious readers all over the world. Contributions made by representatives of the various fields of knowledge are welcome.

        Contact us: