Management is related with handling, conducting and/or controlling- preferably succeedingly- some organization. Wise management includes planning. Adaptability is related to some frequent perturbation, not to regularity, but with unpredictability (11). Unpredictable variations are disturbances that result in a long recovery period, in opposition to periodic variations (18). Adaptive management was considered an unclear term characterized by an explicit feedback between science and management and by regulation that can be reliably tested in their efficacy (66). Adaptive management involves learning by doing (65, 58): projects are experiments and should be designed and managed as such. New information arises as a product of action not by transmission of codified knowledge (57). Adjustment, change and the use of research and monitoring provide new information (11) as happens in ruled processes.


    11   R. T. T. FORMAN. 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. CUP, Cambridge (Eng).
    18   R. T. FORMAN & M GODRON. 1986. Landscape Ecology. New York, Wiley.
    57   H. MINTZBERG. 1983. Structure in Fives. Designing Effective Organizations. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
    66   M. TUNDI AGARDY. 1995. Critical Area Identification and Zoning in Coastal Biosphere Reserves: One Way to Make Marine Conservation Work in Canada. In (c): 214-219.


European Society for Environmental History


    1st International Conference

    5th-9th September 2001, StAndrews, Scotland