«Knowledge» is a vague concept for two reasons. First because the meaning of a word is always more or less vague except in logic and pure mathematics; and second, because all that we count as knowledge is in greater or less degree uncertain, and there is no way of deciding how much uncertainty makes a belief unworthy to be called «knowledge», any more than how much loss of hair makes a man bald"[...] The correct definition of «knowledge» need not concern us at the moment, what concerns us now is belief. (I)


       Russell, Bertrand (1948)

            Human Knowledge  London, Allen & Urwin.
       (I) Model

It is possible to stay close to experience in the study of place and yet retain the philosophical ideal of systematic knowledge? The answer is yes, and the key to such an approach lies in the nature of experience (5: 151)   

        5. YI-FU TUAN(A975) «Place: An Experiential Perspective», The Geographical Review, LXV, 2, 151-165.


Understanding Knowledge


    Conference Programme

        Abstracts of the papers

        Power Point presentations that were given at the conference



"The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn".

   (Alvin Toffler)


How to Eradicate Illiteracy without Eradicating Illiterates? by Munir Fasheh


Economics, Science and Knowledge: Polanyi vs. Hayek  by Philip Mirowski

  Polanyi vs. Hayek, by Philip Mirowski


The relationship between Friedrich Hayek and Michael Polanyi is documented and explored with respect to philosophy and economics. Their respective positions on epistemology and science are shown to fundamentally

govern their differences with regard to the efficacy of government policy with regard to the economy

Sensemaking, Knowledge Creation, and Decision Making: Organizational Knowing as Emergent Strategy

    Chun Wei Choo, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto

        Organizational Knowledge

Environmental Scanning

    Chun Wei Choo, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto

        The problem of Fit between  Ecosystems and Institutions

Knowledge Societies


Epistemic states

Cognitive State of an Individual


Model and Theory


Interpretation under Ambiguity

    by Peter Norvig, University of California, Berkeley

This paper is concerned with the problem of semantic and pragmatic interpretation of sentences. We start with a standard strategy for interpretation, and show how problems relating to ambiguity can confound this strategy, leading us to a more complex strategy. We start with the simplest of strategies:

Access to Learning for Development

    Organized by the Commonwelth of Learning and the University of London


        International Development Goals

        Education for all.

        Children and young people, health, livelihoods, social justice and governance.


Learning and Evaluation

    Learning and development evaluation guide

        The purpose of this guide is to provide practical support and guidance for human resource and learning and development practitioners to effectively evaluate their agency's learning and development.


Logical Fallacies

The ability to identify logical fallacies in the arguments of others, and to avoid them in one’s own arguments, is both valuable and increasingly rare. Fallacious reasoning keeps us from knowing the truth, and the inability to think critically makes us vulnerable to manipulation by those skilled in the art of rhetoric. A logical fallacy is, roughly speaking, an error of reasoning. When someone adopts a position, or tries to persuade someone else to adopt a position, based on a bad piece of reasoning, they commit a fallacy

Organizational Knowledge as Emergent Strategy

Sensemaking, Knowledge Creation, and Decision Making: Organizational Knowing as Emergent Strategy, Chun Wei Choo, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto. Chapter published in "Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge" (Oxford University Press, 2002)


Absolute Astronomy: Exploring the universe of knowledge




Society / Nature / People / Science / History








Educational Gazette


The Educational Gazette(EG) is a collaborative, computer-supported House Organ journal published by EMTF. In order to support the process of collaborative work, contributors  with different backgrounds and living in different regions of the world are welcome.

Contributions to EG focus on essays, reviews, debates and interviews about educational issues and their related subjects. It is aimed at keen or studious readers all over the world. Contributions made by representatives of the various fields of knowledge are welcome.

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