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Department of Political Science

 

 

Comparative Authoritarianism

    Dr Matteo Fumagalli
    Office: Nador 11, room 613
    Phone: ext. 2219
    Email: fumagallim@ceu.hu

  
With all but a handful of states now declaring themselves democratic, and with the  number of more or less imperfect democracies on the rise, there seems  to be little  urgency for understanding what drives authoritarian regimes. However, authoritarianism is resilient and manifold. There are about fifty  countries in the world  today that are   considered not free, and many more that can only be considered as only partly free.

 1. What is authoritarian rule?
            Totalitarianism and authoritarian rule.

     References

     H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), esp. Part III
     K. Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies Vol. I and II (1945)

     Linz, Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, ch. 1, pp. 49-63
     P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, Palgrave (2000) Introduction
     S. Kaufman Purcell, Authoritarianism. A Review Essay. Comparative  Politics, 5(2), 1973, pp. 301-312.
    

    The following novels are interesting literary reflections on totalitarianism:

    G. Orwell, 1984 (1949)  Animal Farm (1945)
    R. Bradbruy, Fahrenheit 451 (1953)

    

  
 2.  Totalitarian regimes
 

    References
  
    H, Arendt, Authority in the Twentieth Century. Review of Politics,18(4), 1956, pp. 403-417.
    H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part III,  Linz, ch. 2
    P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 2, pp. 7-21
    Z.K. Brzezinski and C.J. Friedrich, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (1966)
    G. Orwell, 1984

    Cases for discussion:

         Nazi Germany, Stalin's Soviet Union.
         Various types of authoritarianism.
  
 3. Military authoritarianism

 

    References


    J. Alamgir, Against the Current: The Survival of Authoritarianism in Burma. Pacific  Affairs, 70(3), 1997, pp. 333-350.
    K.L. Remmer, Neopatrimonialism: The Politics of Military Rule in Chile, 1973-1987.
    Comparative Politics, 21(2), 1989, pp. 149-170.
    A.A. Mazrui, Soldiers as Traditionalizers: Military Rule and the  Re-Africanization of   Africa. World Politics, 28(2), 1976, pp. 246-272.
    B. Matthews, The Present Fortune of Tradition-Bound Authoritarianism in Myanmar. Pacific Affairs, 71(1), 1998, pp. 7-23.
    A. Maung Thawnghmung , Preconditions and Prospects for Democratic Transition in Burma/Myanmar. Asian Survey, 43(3), 2003, pp. 443-460.
    A.L. Clark, Myanmar's Present Development and Future Options. Asian  Survey, 39(5), 1999, pp. 772-791.

    Cases for discussion:

        Myanmar, Egypt.
  

 4. One-party rule

    References

    J. Hiskey, D. Canache, The Demise of One-Party Rule in Mexican Municipal Elections. British Journal of Political Science 35, pp. 257-284.
    M.L. Kilson, Authoritarian and Single-Party Tendencies in African Politics. World , Politics, 15(2), 1963, pp. 262-294.
    C.H. Moore, Authoritarian Politics in Unincorporated Society: The Case of Nasser's
    Egypt. Comparative Politics, 6(2), 1974, pp. 193-218.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Mexico, China
    

 5. Bureaucratic Authoritarianism

 

     References
 

    H.B. Im, The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea.  World Politics,39(2), 1987, pp. 231-257.
    H. E. Schamis, Reconceptualizing Latin American Authoritarianism in the 1970s:
    From Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism to Neoconservatism. Comparative Politics,   23(2), 1991, pp. 201-220. Brooker, ch 2. pp. 29-35
    E.C. Epstein, Legitimacy, Institutionalization, and Opposition in  Exclusionary
    Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes: The Situation of the 1980s. Comparative Politics, 17(1), 1984, pp. 37-54.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        South Korea.

 6. Personal Rule
 

    References

    M. Weber, Traditional Authority, pp. 226-241
    P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 2 pp. 52-58
    R.H. Jackson; C.G. Rosberg, Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa.
    Comparative Politics, 16(4), 1984, pp. 421-442.
    P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 6

 7. Sultanism

 

     References

    S. M. Eke, T. Kuzio, Sultanism in Eastern Europe: The Socio-Political  Roots of  Authoritarian Populism in Belarus. Europe-Asia Studies, 52(3), 2000, pp. 523-547.
    Linz, J.J. and Chehabi, H.E., Sultanistic Regimes, Johns Hopkins University Press (1998) ch 1., pp. 3-25
    M. Weber, Charismatic Authority, in Economy and Society Vol 1, pp. 241-249
    S.N. Cummings and M. Ochs (2002) Turkmenistan: Saparmurat Niyazov's  in glorious  isolation. In: S.N. Cummings (2002) Power and Change in Central Asia, Routledge.
    A. Bohr (2004) Independent Turkmenistan: From Post-communism to Sultanism? In  S.N. Cummings (ed) Oil, Transition and Security in Central Asia, Routledge.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Belarus, Turkmenistan, Iran, Romania, Haiti, Togo
    

 8. Ethnocracies
 

    References

    M.S. Fish and R.S. Brooks, `Does Diversity Hurt Democracy?', Journal  of Democracy, 15, (1), 2004, pp. 154-166.
    O. Yiftachel, "Ethnocracy" and Its Discontents: Minorities, Protests, and the Israeli  Polity. Critical Inquiry, 26(4), 2000, pp. 725-756.
    J. Londregan; H. Bienen; N. van de Walle, Ethnicity and Leadership Succession in Africa. International Studies Quarterly, 39(1), 1995), pp. 1-25.
    N. Rouhana; A. Ghanem, The Crisis of Minorities in Ethnic States: The Case of  Palestinian Citizens in Israel. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30(3), 1998, pp. 321-346.
    O. Yiftachel, Democracy or Ethnocracy?: Territory and Settler Politics in Israel/Palestine. Middle East Report, 207, 1998), pp. 8-13.
    L. Barrington, The Domestic and International Consequences of Citizenship in the Soviet Successor States. Europe-Asia Studies, 47(5), 1995, pp. 731-763.
    S. Orvis, Moral Ethnicity and Political Tribalism in Kenya's "Virtual Democracy". African Issues, 29(1/2), 2001, pp. 8-13.
    R. Brubaker, Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union  and Post- Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalist Account. Theory and Society, 23(1), 1994, pp. 47- 78.
  

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Milosevic's Yugoslavia, Tu man's  Croatia, South Africa&Apartheid
 

 9. Coercion, co-optation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond (I)


    About some of the means through which authoritarian  regimes consolidate and retain their power. This session focuses on the role of ideology, censorship and repression.

    References

    P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 5, pp. 100-128
    M. Weber, Economy and Society Vol I, pp. 31-38
    A. March, From Leninism to Karimovism: Hegemony, Ideology, and Authoritarian  Legitimation, Post-Soviet Affairs, 19(4), 2003, pp. 307-336.
    A. March, State ideology and the legitimation of authoritarianism: the case of post- Soviet Uzbekistan1, Journal of Political Ideologies, 892), 2003, pp.209-232.
    L. Adams, Invention, institutionalization and renewal in Uzbekistan.   European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 1999, 355-373.
    L. Adams, Modernity, Postcolonialism and theatrical Form in Uzbekistan. Slavic  Review, 64(2), 2005, pp. 333-354.
    N. Eberstadt, What has been keeping Pyongyang afloat? Policy Review, October- November 2004
    D. Pion-Berlin, Theories on Political Repression in Latin America:  Conventional  Wisdom and an Alternative. PS, 19(1), 1986, pp. 49-56.
    G. Orwell, 1984
    K. Oh; R. Hassig, North Korea between Collapse and Reform. Asian Survey, 39(2),   1999, pp. 287-309.
    C.-S. Lee, Kim Il-Song of North Korea. Asian Survey, 7(6), 1967, pp. 374-382.
    C. Armstrong, North Korea Takes on the World. Current History, 106, 2007.
    

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        North Korea, Uzbekistan
 

10. Coercion, co-optation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond (II)
    About  some of the means through which authoritarian regimes consolidate and retain their power. This session focuses on the sources of popular  support, consent and co-optation.

    References

    B. Geddes; J. Zaller, Sources of Popular Support for Authoritarian  Regimes.
    American Journal of Political Science, 33(2), 1989, pp. 319-347.
    E. Bellin, `Coercive institutions and coercive leaders', in M. Pripstein Posusney (eds)
    Authoritarianism in the Middle East, Rienner, 2005, pp. 21-41
    C.-M. Park, Authoritarian Rule in South Korea: Political Support and  Governmental  Performance. Asian Survey, 31(8), 1991, pp. 743-761.
    E.C. Epstein, Legitimacy, Institutionalization, and Opposition in Exclusionary
    Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes: The Situation of the 1980s. Comparative Politics, 17(1), 1984, pp. 37-54.
    A.M. Thawnghmung, Rural perceptions of state legitimacy in Burma. Journal of  Peasant Studies, 30(2), 2003, pp. 1-40.
    C.L. Davis, The Mobilization of Public Support for an Authoritarian  Regime: The Case of the Lower Class in Mexico City. American Journal of Political Science,
 20(4), 1976, pp. 653-670.
    K.L. Remmer, Political Demobilization in Chile, 1973-1978. Comparative  Politics,  12(3), 1980, pp. 275-301.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Chile, Myanmar, South Korea, Mexico
    

 11. Political Economy (I)
     About  the way in which economy works under authoritarian regimes: the focus  being on the relationship between development and democracy.

    References

    M.Olson, Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.  The American  Political Science Review, 87(3), 1993, pp. 567-576.
    K.L. Remmer, Democracy and Economic Crisis: The Latin American  Experience  World Politics, 42(3), 1990), pp. 315-335.
    N. van de Walle, Economic Reform in a Democratizing Africa.  Comparative Politics, 32(1), 1999, pp. 21-41.
    R.R. Kaufman, Democratic and Authoritarian Responses to the Debt Issue: Argentina,  Brazil, Mexico. International Organization, 39(3), 1985, pp. 473-503.
    R. Robison, Authoritarian States, Capital-Owning Classes, and the Politics of Newly Industrializing Countries: The Case of Indonesia. World Politics, 41(1),1988, pp. 52-74
    J.R. Oneal, The Affinity of Foreign Investors for Authoritarian Regimes. Political  Research Quarterly, 47(3), 1994, pp. 565-588.
    S. Haggard; R.R. Kaufman, The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Comparative Politics, 29(3), 1997, pp. 263-283.
    

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Latin America (esp. Argentina and   Brazil), East Asia (esp. South Korea and Taiwan)
    

 12. Political Economy (II): Rentierism
          

    References

    G. Luciani, `Oil and Political Economy in the International Relations  of the Middle East', in L. Fawcett (ed) International Relations of the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 79-104.
    M. Ross, `Does Oil Hinder Democracy?', World Politics, 53(3), 2001,  pp. 325-361.
    M. Szeftel, Misunderstanding African politics: corruption & the  governance agenda. Review of African Political Economy, 25, 1998

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Kazakhstan, Middle East, pre-revolution Iran
    

13. Patrimonialism and neo-patrimonialism

 

    References
       

    M. Bratton; N. Van de Walle, Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political  Transitions in  Africa. World Politics, 46(4), 1994, pp. 453-489.
     V.T. Le Vine, African Patrimonial Regimes in Comparative Perspective. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 18(4), 1980), pp. 657-673.
    K. Collins, The Logic of Clan Politics: Evidence from the Central  Asian Trajectories. World Politics, 56(2), 2004, pp. 224-261.
    M. Weber, Types of Legitimate Domination, ch, 3 esp. pp. 212-216
    A. Ilkhamov, Neopatrimonialism, interest groups and patronage networks: the impasses of the governance system in Uzbekistan, Central Asian Survey, 26(1), 2007,
 pp. 65-84.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Sub-Saharan Africa, Uzbekistan

 14.  The foreign policy of authoritarian states
 

        About  the way in which authoritarian states conduct their foreign policy and asks whether this is in any way different from the way in which democratic states do.
   

    References
    
    J.D. Hagan, Domestic Political Systems and War Proneness.    International Studies    Review, 38(2), 1994, pp. 183-207.
    M. Peceny, C.C. Beer, S. Sanchez-Terry, A Dictatorial Peace? American  Political   Science Review, 96, 2002, pp. 15-26.
    C. Jourde, The International Relations of Small Neoauthoritarian  States: Islamism,  Warlordism, and the Framing of Stability. International Studies Quarterly, 51(2), 2007.
    B. Bueno de Mesquita; R.M. Siverson, War and the Survival of Political Leaders: A
    Comparative Study of Regime Types and Political Accountability. The     American  Political Science Review, 89(4), 1995, pp. 841-855.
    V. M. Hudson; C.S. Vore, Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and  Tomorrow.  International Studies Review, 39(2), 1995, pp. 209-238.
    Daniel J. Levinson Authoritarian Personality and Foreign Policy Conflict Resolution,   1(1), 1957, pp. 37-47.
    M. Taylor Fravel, Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation:  Explaining  China's Compromises in Territorial Disputes. International Security, 30(2), 2005, 46-83.
    M. Fumagalli, Alignments and Re-alignments in Central Asia. Rationale   and Implications of Uzbekistan's Rapprochement with Russia. International  Political    Science Review, 28(3), pp. 253-271.
    P. Woodward, Relations between Neighbouring States in North-East Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 22(2), 1984, pp. 273-285.
 

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Russia, China, Uzbekistan
    

 15. Religion and authoritarianism (I)

        What is the relationship between Islam and democracy and authoritarianism? What are the factors that sustain authoritarian rule in the Middle East?
        Why are some  Middle Eastern states more authoritarian than others?
 

    References

    Fish, M.S. (2002) Islam and Authoritarianism, World Politics, 55, 2002, 4-37
   J. Crystal, Authoritarianism and Its Adversaries in the Arab World. World Politics, 46(2), 1994, pp. 262-289.
    M. Ayoob, The Revolutionary Thrust of Islamic Political Tradition. Third World  Quarterly, 3(2), 1981, pp. 269-276.
    J. Fox, Religion as an Overlooked Element of International Relations. International  Studies Review, 3(3), 2001, pp. 53-73.

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria.
    

 16.  Religion and authoritarianism (II)
 

        Are some cultures more prone to supporting authoritarian rule than  others?

    References

    I. A. Karawan, Monarchs, Mullas, and Marshals: Islamic Regimes? Annals  of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 524, 1992, pp.103-119.
   S. Tiano, Authoritarianism and Political Culture in Argentina and  Chile in the Mid - 1960's. Latin American Research Review, 21(1), 1986, pp. 73-98.
    Ibrahim K. Sundiata, The Roots of African Despotism: The Question of Political Culture. African Studies Review, 31(1), 1988, pp. 9-31.
    G.K. Leak; B.A. Randall, Clarification of the Link between Right-Wing  Authoritarianism and Religiousness: The Role of Religious Maturity. Journal for the  Scientific Study of Religion, 34(2), 1995, pp. 245-252.
    S. Feldman, Enforcing Social Conformity: A Theory of Authoritarianism.  Political  Psychology, 24(1), 2003, pp. 41-74.
    S.T. Hunter, Iran and the Spread of Revolutionary Islam. Third World  Quarterly,10(2), 1988, pp. 730-749.
    F. Halliday, Iran and the Middle East: Foreign Policy and Domestic   Change. Middle  East Report, 220, 2001, pp. 42-47.
    S.A. Arjomand, History, Structure, and Revolution in the Shi'ite  Tradition in  Contemporary Iran. International Political Science Review, 10(2), 1989, pp. 111-119.
    F. Kazemi, Models of Iranian Politics, the Road to the Islamic  Revolution, and the  Challenge of Civil Society. World Politics, 47(4), 1995), pp. 555-574.
 

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Iran after the revolution

 17. Protest, pacts and rebellion (I)
 

     References

    J. Ulfelder, Contentious Collective Action and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes. International Political Science Review, 26(3), 311-334 (2005).
    M. Bratton; N. van de Walle, Popular Protest and Political Reform in Africa. Comparative Politics, 24(4), 1992, pp. 419-442.
    J.A. Goldstone, Theories of Revolution: The Third Generation. World Politics, 32(3), 1980, pp. 425-453.
    E.P. Stevens, Protest Movement in an Authoritarian Regime: The Mexican Case. Comparative Politics, 7(3), 1975, pp. 361-382.
    P. Almeida, `Protest Waves in Authoritarian Settings', American Journal of Sociology, 2003
    R.A. Hinnebusch, Party Activists in Syria and Egypt: Political Participation in  Authoritarian Modernizing States. International Political Science  Review, 4(1),1983,  pp. 84-93.
 

    Proposed cases for discussion:

         Central Asia, Iran, Egypt. Central-Eastern Europe
    

18. Protest, pacts and rebellion (II)

    

     References

    K. Collins, Clan, Pacts and Politics in Central Asia. Journal of  Democracy, 13(3), 2002, pp. 137-152.
    A. Keshavarzian, `Contestation without Democracy: Elite Fragmentation in Iran', in M. Pripstein Posusney, pp. 63-88
    E.J. Wood, An insurgent path to democracy: Popular Mobilization, Economic Interests and Regime Transition in South Africa and El Salvador.  Comparative  Political Studies, 34(8), 2001, pp. 862-888.
 

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        South Africa, Iran, East-Central Europe


19. External intervention and regime change   

    About  the role of international factors in bringing about political regime in authoritarian states. Special attention is given to post-communist Eurasia.

     References

    Herd, G. (2005) Colorful revolutions and CIS: manufactured versus managed democracy. Problems of Post-communism, 52(2), pp. 3-18.
    M. Ottaway, Promoting Democracy in the Middle East: The Problem of US  Credibility, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003.
    Dimitrova, A. and Pridham, G. (2004) International Actors and Democracy Promotion  in Central and Eastern Europe: The Integration Model and its Limits. Democratization, 11(5), pp. 91-112.
    L. Whitehead, The International Dimension of Democratization: Europe and the  Americas (2001).
    O'Donnell, G. and Schmitter, P. (eds) (1986) Transitions from  Authoritarian Rule.  Some Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies, Johns Hopkins University Press.
    G. Gill, The Dynamics of Democratization: Elites, Civil Society and the Transition Process , St Martin's Press, 2000, ch 2.
    Linz, J.J. and Stepan, A. (1996) Problems of Democratic Transition and  Consolidation in South Europe, South America and post-Communist  Europe, Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Huntington, S. (1991) the Third Wave. Democratization in the late Twentieth Century, University of Oklahoma Press.  

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Serbia
    
 20.  Authoritarianism and its aftermath
  What follows the demise of an authoritarian regime? The possible  outcomes of post-authoritarian rule.

     References

    McFaul, M., The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Non-Cooperative Transitions in the Post-communist Worlds, World Politics, 54(2), 2002, pp. 212-244.
    R.K. Betts; S.P. Huntington, Dead Dictators and Rioting Mobs: Does the  Demise of Authoritarian Rulers Lead to Political Instability? International Security, 10(3), 1985-
 1986, pp. 112-146.
    J.H. Herz, On Reestablishing Democracy after the Downfall of Authoritarian or  Dictatorial Regimes. Comparative Politics, 10(4), 1978, pp. 559-562.
    P.J. Williams, Dual Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Popular and  Electoral Democracy in Nicaragua. Comparative Politics, 26(2), 1994, pp.  169-185.
    N. Bermeo, Review Article: Rethinking Regime Change. Comparative Politics, 22(3), 1990), pp. 359-377.
    R.H. Dix, The Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes. The Western  Political  Quarterly, 35(4), 1982, pp. 554-573.
    W. Hunter, Politicians against Soldiers', Comparative Politics, 27(4),  1995, pp. 425- 443.
    J. Zielinski, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule and the Problem of  Violence. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 43(2), 1999, pp. 213-228.
    K.L. Remmer, Redemocratization and the Impact of Authoritarian Rule in Latin  America. Comparative Politics, 17(3), 1985, pp. 253-275.
    F. Agüero, Legacies of Transitions: Institutionalization, the  Military, and Democracy in South America. International Studies Review, 42(2), 1998, pp.   383-404.
    T. Carothers, `The End of the Transition Paradigm', Journal of Democracy, 13(1), 2002, pp. 5-21.

 21.  Hybrid regimes. Semi-authoritarian and semi-democratic countries

    While some countries can be neatly categorised as either democracies or autocracies,  many fall somehow in between. The lecture looks at some examples of    semi-
democratic/semi-authoritarian countries and seeks to identify the main characteristics of hybrid regimes.
    

     References


    L. Diamond, `Thinking about hybrid regimes', Journal of Democracy, 2002, pp. 21- 35.
   M. Morje-Howard and P.G. Roessler, `Liberalizing electoral outcomes in  competitive  authoritarian regimes', American Journal of Political Science, 50(2), 2006, pp. 365-
 381.
    S. Levitsky and L. Way, `The rise of competitive authoritarianism', Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 2002, p.. 51-65.
    Schedler, A., The Menu of Manipulation. Journal of Democracy, 13(2),  2002, pp. 36- 50
    McFaul, M. Explaining Party Formation and Nonformation in Russia: Actors, Institutions, and Chance. Comparative Political Studies, 34(1), 2001.
    S. Kaufman Purcell, Decision-Making in an Authoritarian Regime: Theoretical  Implications from a Mexican Case Study. World Politics, 26(1), 1973,  pp. 28-54.
    Gill, G., A new turn to authoritarian Rule in Russia?  Democratrization, 13(1), 2006

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        Russia, Mexico
 
 22.  Chinese ´democracy'


     The political and economic development of the People's  Republic of China between the end of the twentieth and beginning of  the twenty-first  century. The discussion will focus on the possibility for the PRC to   taken on a  democratic turn.

     References

    B. Gilley, The limits of Authoritarian resilience, Journal of  Democracy 14.1 (2003)  18-26
    D. Roy, Singapore, China, and the "Soft Authoritarian" Challenge.  Asian Survey, 34(3), 1994), pp. 231-242.
    B. Sautman, Sirens of the Strongman: Neo-Authoritarianism in Recent Chinese Political Theory. The China Quarterly, 129, 1992, pp. 72-102.
    M.P. Petracca; Mong Xiong, The Concept of Chinese Neo-Authoritarianism: An Exploration and Democratic Critique. Asian Survey, 30(11), 1990, pp. 1099-1117. THE DEVELOPMENTAL STATE AND THE DEBATE OVER `ASIAN VALUES'
    S.J. Hood, The Myth of Asian-Style Democracy. Asian Survey, 38(9),     1998, pp. 853- 866.
    J.W. Han; L. H. M. Ling, Authoritarianism in the Hypermasculinized  State:
    Hybridity, Patriarchy, and Capitalism in Korea. International Studies Quarterly, 42(1), 1998, pp. 53-78.
    Y.-M. Kim, "Asian-Style Democracy": A Critique from East Asia. Asian  Survey,37(12), 1997, pp. 1119-1134.
 

    Proposed cases for discussion:

        China, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore
  

 23.  Conclusion: Whither authoritarianism?
      

    Focus on the speculation over the future of authoritarian rule.

     References

    P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 10 pp. 256-260
    Linz, Further Reflections on Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes,  in J.J. Linz,
    Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, pp. 1-48.