Course and References
Instructor: Dr Matteo Fumagalli
With all but a handful of states now declaring themselves democratic, and with the number of more or less imperfect democracies on the rise, there seems to be little urgency for understanding what drives authoritarian regimes. However, authoritarianism is resilient and manifold. There are about fifty countries in the world today that are considered not free, and many more that can only be considered as only partly free.
The course offers a comparative outlook to the study of authoritarianism. It combines a theoretical reflection on why authoritarian regimes emerge,
consolidate their power and change, with a study of empirical manifestations in various parts of the world, including post-communist Eurasia, post-colonial Africa, the Middle East and East Asia.
The course's main aim is to provide students with a strong understanding of: the variety of authoritarian regimes; the means of power consolidation used by authoritarian regimes, including coercion, consent and co-optation; the various forms of collective action and resistance under authoritarian rule; the way in which authoritarian regimes change.
By the end of the course students will: acquire a firm understanding of the differences between totalitarian, hybrid, and authoritarian regimes; critically engage with the literature on ideal types of authoritarianism and `navigate' across the practical manifestations thereof; apply their knowledge of the theoretical literature to a number of selected case studies.
Introduction: What is authoritarian rule?
Coercion, co-optation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond I
Coercion, co-optation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond II
Political Economy I
Political Economy II: Rentierism
Patrimonialism and neo-patrimonialism
The foreign policy of authoritarian states
Religion and authoritarianism I
Religion and authoritarianism II
Protest, pacts and rebellion I
Protest, pacts and rebellion II
External intervention and regime change
Authoritarianism and its aftermath
Conclusion: Whither authoritarianism?
1. Introduction: What is authoritarian rule?
H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), esp. Part III
K. Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies Vol. I and II (1945)
The following novels are interesting literary reflections on totalitarianism:
G. Orwell, 1984 (1949)
G. Orwell, Animal Farm (1945)
R. Bradbruy, Fahrenheit 451 (1953)
Linz, Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, ch. 1, pp. 49-63
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, Palgrave (2000) Introduction
S. Kaufman Purcell, Authoritarianism. A Review Essay. Comparative Politics, 5(2),1973, pp. 301-312.
The lecture introduces the concept of totalitarianism. distinguishing it from authoritarian rule.
Brooker, ch. 1, pp. 7-21
H, Arendt, Authority in the Twentieth Century. Review of Politics, 18(4), 1956, pp. 403-417.
H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part III Linz, ch. 2
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 2, pp. 7-21
Z.K. Brzezinski and C.J. Friedrich, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (1966)
G. Orwell, 1984.
Proposed cases for discussion: Nazi Germany, Stalin's Soviet Union.
3. Military rule
Brooker, ch. 2 pp. 44-52
Amos Perlmutter, The Comparative Analysis of Military Regimes: Formations, Aspirations, and Achievements. World Politics, 33(1), 1980, pp. 96-120.
Brooker, ch. 3
J. Alamgir, Against the Current: The Survival of Authoritarianism in Burma. Pacific Affairs, 70(3), 1997, pp. 333-350.
K.L. Remmer, Neopatrimonialism: The Politics of Military Rule in Chile, 1973-1987.
Comparative Politics, 21(2), 1989, pp. 149-170.
A.A. Mazrui, Soldiers as Traditionalizers: Military Rule and the Re-Africanization of Africa. World Politics, 28(2), 1976, pp. 246-272.
B. Matthews, The Present Fortune of Tradition-Bound Authoritarianism in Myanmar.
Pacific Affairs, 71(1), 1998, pp. 7-23.
A. Maung Thawnghmung , Preconditions and Prospects for Democratic Transition in Burma/Myanmar. Asian Survey, 43(3), 2003, pp. 443-460.
A.L. Clark, Myanmar's Present Development and Future Options. Asian Survey, 39(5), 1999, pp. 772-791.
Proposed cases for discussion: Myanmar, Egypt.
4. One Party Rule
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 2, pp. 36-44
C. C. Beer, Institutional Change in Mexico: Politics after One-Party Rule. Latin American Research Review, 37(3), 2002, pp. 149-161.
Brooker, ch. 4.
J. Hiskey, D. Canache, The Demise of One-Party Rule in Mexican Municipal Elections. British Journal of Political Science 35, pp. 257-284.
M.L. Kilson, Authoritarian and Single-Party Tendencies in African Politics. World Politics, 15(2), 1963, pp. 262-294.
C.H. Moore, Authoritarian Politics in Unincorporated Society: The Case of Nasser's Egypt. Comparative Politics, 6(2), 1974, pp. 193-218.
Proposed cases for discussion: Mexico, China
5. Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
Linz, ch. 4, pp. 184-208
H.B. Im, The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea.World Politics, 39(2), 1987, pp. 231-257.
H. E. Schamis, Reconceptualizing Latin American Authoritarianism in the 1970s:
From Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism to Neoconservatism. Comparative Politics, 23(2), 1991, pp. 201-220.
Brooker, ch 2. pp. 29-35
E.C. Epstein, Legitimacy, Institutionalization, and Opposition in Exclusionary Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes: The Situation of the 1980s.
Comparative Politics, 17(1), 1984, pp. 37-54.
Proposed cases for discussion: South Korea.
6. Personal Rule
M. Weber, Traditional Authority, pp. 226-241
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 2 pp. 52-58,
R.H. Jackson; C.G. Rosberg, Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa.
Comparative Politics, 16(4), 1984, pp. 421-442.
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 6 Linz, ch. 3
Proposed cases for discussion: Africa, Ceausescu's Romania, Russia
S. M. Eke, T. Kuzio, Sultanism in Eastern Europe: The Socio-Political Roots of Authoritarian Populism in Belarus. Europe-Asia Studies, 52(3), 2000,
Linz, J.J. and Chehabi, H.E., Sultanistic Regimes, Johns Hopkins University Press (1998) ch 1., pp. 3-25
M. Weber, Charismatic Authority, in Economy and Society Vol 1, pp. 241-249
S.N. Cummings and M. Ochs (2002) Turkmenistan: Saparmurat Niyazov's inglorious isolation. In: S.N. Cummings (2002) Power and Change in Central Asia,
A. Bohr (2004) Independent Turkmenistan: From Post-communism to Sultanism? In S.N. Cummings (ed) Oil, Transition and Security in Central Asia,
Proposed cases for discussion: Belarus, Turkmenistan, Iran, Romania, Haiti,
Linz, ch. pp. 233-240
M.S. Fish and R.S. Brooks, `Does Diversity Hurt Democracy?', Journal of Democracy, 15, (1), 2004, pp. 154-166.
O. Yiftachel, "Ethnocracy" and Its Discontents: Minorities, Protests, and the Israeli Polity. Critical Inquiry, 26(4), 2000, pp. 725-756.
J. Londregan; H. Bienen; N. van de Walle, Ethnicity and Leadership Succession in Africa. International Studies Quarterly, 39(1), 1995), pp. 1-25.
N. Rouhana; A. Ghanem, The Crisis of Minorities in Ethnic States: The Case of Palestinian Citizens in Israel. International Journal of Middle East
Studies, 30(3), 1998, pp. 321-346.
O. Yiftachel, Democracy or Ethnocracy?: Territory and Settler Politics in Israel/Palestine. Middle East Report, 207, 1998), pp. 8-13.
L. Barrington, The Domestic and International Consequences of Citizenship in the Soviet Successor States. Europe-Asia Studies, 47(5), 1995, pp.
S. Orvis, Moral Ethnicity and Political Tribalism in Kenya's "Virtual Democracy". African Issues, 29(1/2), 2001, pp. 8-13.
R. Brubaker, Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union and
Post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalist Account. Theory and Society,
23(1), 1994, pp. 47-78.
Proposed cases for discussion: Milosevic's Yugoslavia, Tu man's Croatia, South Africa&Apartheid
9. Coercion, cooptation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond I
The lecture discusses some of the means through which authoritarian regimes consolidate and retain their power. This session focuses on the role of ideology, censorship and repression.
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 5, pp. 100-128
M. Weber, Economy and Society Vol I, pp. 31-38
A. March, From Leninism to Karimovism: Hegemony, Ideology, and Authoritarian Legitimation, Post-Soviet Affairs, 19(4), 2003, pp. 307-336.
A. March, State ideology and the legitimation of authoritarianism: the> case of post- Soviet Uzbekistan1, Journal of Political Ideologies, 892), 2003, pp.
L. Adams, Invention, institutionalization and renewal in Uzbekistan.
European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 1999, 355-373.
L. Adams, Modernity, Postcolonialism and theatrical Form in
Review, 64(2), 2005, pp. 333-354.
N. Eberstadt, What has been keeping Pyongyang afloat? Policy Review, October- November 2004
D. Pion-Berlin, Theories on Political Repression in Latin America: Conventional
Wisdom and an Alternative. PS, 19(1), 1986, pp. 49-56. G. Orwell, 1984
K. Oh; R. Hassig, North Korea between Collapse and Reform. Asian Survey, 39(2), 1999, pp. 287-309.
C.-S. Lee, Kim Il-Song of North Korea. Asian Survey, 7(6), 1967, pp.374-382.
C. Armstrong, North Korea Takes on the World. Current History, 106, 2007.
Proposed cases for discussion: North Korea, Uzbekistan
10. Coercion, cooptation and consent: Legitimacy and beyond II
The lecture discusses some of the means through which authoritarian regimes consolidate and retain their power. This session focuses on the sources of popular upport, consent and co-optation.
B. Geddes; J. Zaller, Sources of Popular Support for Authoritarian Regimes.
American Journal of Political Science, 33(2), 1989, pp. 319-347.
E. Bellin, `Coercive institutions and coercive leaders', in M. Pripstein Posusney (eds)
Authoritarianism in the Middle East, Rienner, 2005, pp. 21-41
C.-M. Park, Authoritarian Rule in South Korea: Political Support and Governmental Performance. Asian Survey, 31(8), 1991, pp. 743-761.
E.C. Epstein, Legitimacy, Institutionalization, and Opposition in Exclusionary
Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes: The Situation of the 1980s. Comparative Politics, 17(1), 1984, pp. 37-54.
A.M. Thawnghmung, Rural perceptions of state legitimacy in Burma.Journal of Peasant Studies, 30(2), 2003, pp. 1-40.
C.L. Davis, The Mobilization of Public Support for an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of the Lower Class in Mexico City. American Journal of Political
Science, 20(4), 1976, pp. 653-670.
K.L. Remmer, Political Demobilization in Chile, 1973-1978. Comparative Politics, 12(3), 1980, pp. 275-301.
Proposed cases for discussion: Chile, Myanmar, South Korea, Mexico
11. Political Economy I
The lecture examines the way in which economy works under authoritarian regimes.
M.Olson, Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development. The American Political Science Review, 87(3), 1993, pp. 567-576.
K.L. Remmer, Democracy and Economic Crisis: The Latin American Experience World Politics, 42(3), 1990), pp. 315-335.
N. van de Walle, Economic Reform in a Democratizing Africa. Comparative Politics, 32(1), 1999, pp. 21-41.
R.R. Kaufman, Democratic and Authoritarian Responses to the Debt Issue: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico. International Organization, 39(3), 1985, pp. 473-503.
R. Robison, Authoritarian States, Capital-Owning Classes, and the Politics of Newly Industrializing Countries: The Case of Indonesia. World Politics, 41(1), 1988, pp. 52- 74
J.R. Oneal, The Affinity of Foreign Investors for Authoritarian Regimes. Political Research Quarterly, 47(3), 1994, pp. 565-588.
S. Haggard; R.R. Kaufman, The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Comparative Politics, 29(3), 1997, pp. 263-283.
Proposed cases for discussion: Latin America (esp. Argentina and Brazil), East Asia (esp. South Korea and Taiwan)
12 Political economy II: Rentierism and the Resource curse
The lecture introduces the concept of `rentier state' and focuses on the relationship between resource wealth and authoritarianism.
G. Luciani, `Oil and Political Economy in the International Relations of the Middle East', in L. Fawcett (ed) International Relations of the Middle East,
Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 79-104.
M. Ross, `Does Oil Hinder Democracy?', World Politics, 53(3), 2001,pp. 325-361.
M. Szeftel, Misunderstanding African politics: corruption & the governance agenda.
Review of African Political Economy, 25, 1998
Proposed cases for discussion: Kazakhstan, Middle East, pre-revolution
13 Patrimonialism and neo-patrimonialism
Building on Weber's concept of patrimonialism, the lecture revisits the concept and examines its more modern applications around the world, particularly in post-colonial contexts.
M. Bratton; N. Van de Walle, Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in Africa. World Politics, 46(4), 1994, pp. 453-489.
Linz, ch 3
V.T. Le Vine, African Patrimonial Regimes in Comparative Perspective. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 18(4), 1980), pp. 657-673.
K. Collins, The Logic of Clan Politics: Evidence from the CentralAsian Trajectories.World Politics, 56(2), 2004, pp. 224-261.
M. Weber, Types of Legitimate Domination, ch, 3 esp. pp. 212-216
A. Ilkhamov, Neopatrimonialism, interest groups and patronage networks: the impasses of the governance system in Uzbekistan, Central Asian Survey,
26(1), 2007, pp. 65-84.
Proposed cases for discussion: Sub-Saharan Africa, Uzbekistan
14. The Foreign Policy of Authoritarian States
The lecture examines the way in which authoritarian states conduct their foreign policy and asks whether this is in any way different from the way in which democratic states do.
J.D. Hagan, Domestic Political Systems and War Proneness. International Studies Review, 38(2), 1994, pp. 183-207.
M. Peceny, C.C. Beer, S. Sanchez-Terry, A Dictatorial Peace? American Political Science Review, 96, 2002, pp. 15-26.
C. Jourde, The International Relations of Small Neoauthoritarian States: Islamism, Warlordism, and the Framing of Stability. International Studies Quarterly, 51(2), 2007.
B. Bueno de Mesquita; R.M. Siverson, War and the Survival of Political Leaders: A
Comparative Study of Regime Types and Political Accountability. The American Political Science Review, 89(4), 1995, pp. 841-855.
V. M. Hudson; C.S. Vore, Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. International Studies Review, 39(2), 1995, pp. 209-238.
Daniel J. Levinson Authoritarian Personality and Foreign Policy Conflict Resolution,1(1), 1957, pp. 37-47.
M. Taylor Fravel, Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation: Explaining China's Compromises in Territorial Disputes. International Security,
30(2), 2005, 46- 83.
M. Fumagalli, Alignments and Re-alignments in Central Asia. Rationale and Implications of Uzbekistan's Rapprochement with Russia. International
Political Science Review, 28(3), pp. 253-271.
P. Woodward, Relations between Neighbouring States in North-East Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 22(2), 1984, pp. 273-285.
Proposed cases for discussion: Russia, China, Uzbekistan
15. Religion and authoritarianism I
What is the relationship between Islam and democracy and authoritarianism? What are the factors that sustain authoritarian rule in the Middle East?
Why are some Middle Eastern states more authoritarian than others?
Fish, M.S. (2002) Islam and Authoritarianism, World Politics, 55, 2002, 4-37
J. Crystal, Authoritarianism and Its Adversaries in the Arab World.World Politics, 46(2), 1994, pp. 262-289.
M. Ayoob, The Revolutionary Thrust of Islamic Political Tradition. Third World Quarterly, 3(2), 1981, pp. 269-276.
J. Fox, Religion as an Overlooked Element of International Relations. International Studies Review, 3(3), 2001, pp. 53-73.
Proposed cases for discussion: Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria.
16. Religion and Authoritarianism II
Are some cultures more prone to supporting authoritarian rule than others?
I.A. Karawan, Monarchs, Mullas, and Marshals: Islamic Regimes? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 524, 1992, pp.
S. Tiano, Authoritarianism and Political Culture in Argentina and Chile in the Mid -1960's. Latin American Research Review, 21(1), 1986, pp. 73-98.
Ibrahim K. Sundiata, The Roots of African Despotism: The Question of Political Culture. African Studies Review, 31(1), 1988, pp. 9-31.
G.K. Leak; B.A. Randall, Clarification of the Link between Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Religiousness: The Role of Religious Maturity.Journal for the
Scientific Study of Religion, 34(2), 1995, pp. 245-252.
S. Feldman, Enforcing Social Conformity: A Theory of Authoritarianism.Political Psychology, 24(1), 2003, pp. 41-74.
S.T. Hunter, Iran and the Spread of Revolutionary Islam. Third World Quarterly, 10(2), 1988, pp. 730-749.
F. Halliday, Iran and the Middle East: Foreign Policy and Domestic Change. Middle East Report, 220, 2001, pp. 42-47.
S.A. Arjomand, History, Structure, and Revolution in the Shi'ite Tradition in Contemporary Iran. International Political Science Review, 10(2),
1989, pp. 111-119.
F. Kazemi, Models of Iranian Politics, the Road to the Islamic Revolution, and the Challenge of Civil Society. World Politics, 47(4), 1995), pp. 555-574.
Proposed cases for discussion: Iran after the revolution
17 Pacts. Protests and rebellion I
The lecture focuses on rebellion and revolution as means to bring authoritarian regimes to an end.
J. Ulfelder, Contentious Collective Action and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes. International Political Science Review, 26(3), 311-334 (2005).
M. Bratton; N. van de Walle, Popular Protest and Political Reform in Africa. Comparative Politics, 24(4), 1992, pp. 419-442.
J.A. Goldstone, Theories of Revolution: The Third Generation. World Politics, 32(3), 1980, pp. 425-453.
E.P. Stevens, Protest Movement in an Authoritarian Regime: The Mexican Case Comparative Politics, 7(3), 1975, pp. 361-382.
P. Almeida, `Protest Waves in Authoritarian Settings', American Journal of Sociology, 2003
R.A. Hinnebusch, Party Activists in Syria and Egypt: Political Participation in Authoritarian Modernizing States. International Political Science
Review, 4(1),1983, pp. 84-93.
Proposed cases for discussion: Central Asia, Iran, Egypt. Central-Eastern Europe
18. Pacts, Protests and rebellion II
The lecture focuses on non-rebellious transitions from authoritarian rule, in particular on the role of intra-elite pacts.
K. Collins, Clan, Pacts and Politics in Central Asia. Journal of Democracy, 13(3), 2002, pp. 137-152.
A. Keshavarzian, `Contestation without Democracy: Elite Fragmentation in Iran', in M. Pripstein Posusney, pp. 63-88
E.J. Wood, An insurgent path to democracy: Popular Mobilization, Economic Interests and Regime Transition in South Africa and El Salvador.
Comparative Political Studies, 34(8), 2001, pp. 862-888.
Proposed cases for discussion: South Africa, Iran, East-Central Europe
19. External intervention and regime change
The lecture discusses the role of international factors in bringing about political regime in authoritarian states. Special attention is given to post-communist Eurasia.
Herd, G. (2005) Colorful revolutions and CIS: manufactured versus managed democracy. Problems of Post-communism, 52(2), pp. 3-18.
M. Ottaway, Promoting Democracy in the Middle East: The Problem of US Credibility, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003.
Dimitrova, A. and Pridham, G. (2004) International Actors and Democracy Promotion in Central and Eastern Europe: The Integration Model and its Limits.
Democratization, 11(5), pp. 91-112.
L. Whitehead, The International Dimension of Democratization: Europe and the Americas (2001).
O'Donnell, G. and Schmitter, P. (eds) (1986) Transitions from Authoritarian Rule.
Some Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies, Johns Hopkins University Press.
G. Gill, The Dynamics of Democratization: Elites, Civil Society and the Transition Process , St Martin's Press, 2000, ch 2.
Linz, J.J. and Stepan, A. (1996) Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation in South Europe, South America and post-Communist
Europe, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Huntington, S. (1991) the Third Wave. Democratization in the late Twentieth Century, University of Oklahoma Press.
Proposed cases for discussion: Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Serbia
20. Authoritarianism and its aftermath
What follows the demise of an authoritarian regime? The lecture looks at the possible outcomes of post-authoritarian rule.
McFaul, M., The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Non-Cooperative Transitions in the Post-communist Worlds, World Politics, 54(2), 2002,
R.K. Betts; S.P. Huntington, Dead Dictators and Rioting Mobs: Does the Demise of Authoritarian Rulers Lead to Political Instability? International
Security, 10(3), 1985- 1986, pp. 112-146.
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch 8
J.H. Herz, On Reestablishing Democracy after the Downfall of Authoritarian or Dictatorial Regimes. Comparative Politics, 10(4), 1978, pp. 559-562.
P.J. Williams, Dual Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Popular and Electoral>
Democracy in Nicaragua. Comparative Politics, 26(2), 1994, pp.169-185.
N. Bermeo, Review Article: Rethinking Regime Change. Comparative Politics, 22(3), 1990), pp. 359-377.
R.H. Dix, The Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes. The Western Political Quarterly, 35(4), 1982, pp. 554-573.
W. Hunter, Politicians against Soldiers', Comparative Politics, 27(4),1995, pp. 425-443.
J. Zielinski, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule and the Problem of Violence. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 43(2), 1999, pp. 213-228.
K.L. Remmer, Redemocratization and the Impact of Authoritarian Rule in Latin America. Comparative Politics, 17(3), 1985, pp. 253-275.
F. AgŁero, Legacies of Transitions: Institutionalization, the Military, and Democracy in South America. International Studies Review, 42(2), 1998, pp.
T. Carothers, `The End of the Transition Paradigm', Journal of Democracy, 13(1), 2002, pp. 5-21.
Brooker, ch 8
21. Hybrid regimes: Semi-authoritarian and semi-democratic countries
While some countries can be neatly categorised as either democracies or autocracies, many fall somehow in between. The lecture looks at some examples of
semi- democratic/semi-authoritarian countries and seeks to identify the main characteristics of hybrid regimes.
L. Diamond, `Thinking about hybrid regimes', Journal of Democracy, 2002, pp. 21- 35.
M. Morje-Howard and P.G. Roessler, `Liberalizing electoral outcomes in competitive authoritarian regimes', American Journal of Political Science, 50(2),
2006, pp. 365-381.
S. Levitsky and L. Way, `The rise of competitive authoritarianism', Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 2002, p.. 51-65.
Schedler, A., The Menu of Manipulation. Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 2002, pp. 36- 50
McFaul, M. Explaining Party Formation and Nonformation in Russia: Actors, Institutions, and Chance. Comparative Political Studies, 34(1), 2001.
S. Kaufman Purcell, Decision-Making in an Authoritarian Regime: Theoretical Implications from a Mexican Case Study. World Politics, 26(1), 1973,
Gill, G., A new turn to authoritarian Rule in Russia? Democratrization, 13(1), 2006
Proposed cases for discussion: Russia, Mexico
22. `Chinese democracy'
The lecture examines the political and economic development of the People's Republic of China between the end of the twentieth and beginning of
the twenty-first century. The discussion will focus on the possibility for the PRC to taken on a democratic turn.
B. Gilley, The limits of Authoritarian resilience, Journal of Democracy 14.1 (2003) 18-26
D. Roy, Singapore, China, and the "Soft Authoritarian" Challenge. Asian Survey, 34(3), 1994), pp. 231-242.
B. Sautman, Sirens of the Strongman: Neo-Authoritarianism in Recent Chinese Political Theory. The China Quarterly, 129, 1992, pp. 72-102.
M.P. Petracca; Mong Xiong, The Concept of Chinese Neo-Authoritarianism: An Exploration and Democratic Critique. Asian Survey, 30(11), 1990, pp.
THE DEVELOPMENTAL STATE AND THE DEBATE OVER `ASIAN VALUES'
S.J. Hood, The Myth of Asian-Style Democracy. Asian Survey, 38(9), 1998, pp. 853-866.
J.W. Han; L. H. M. Ling, Authoritarianism in the Hypermasculinized> State: Hybridity, Patriarchy, and Capitalism in Korea. International Studies
Quarterly, 42(1), 1998, pp. 53-78.
Y.-M. Kim, "Asian-Style Democracy": A Critique from East Asia. Asian Survey, 37(12), 1997, pp. 1119-1134.
Proposed cases for discussion: China, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore
23. Conclusion: Whither Authoritarian Rule?
The lecture summarises the main issues discussed in the course. The discussion focuses on the speculation over the future of authoritarian rule.
P. Brooker, Non-democratic Governments, ch. 10 pp. 256-260.
Linz, Further Reflections on Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, in J.J. Linz, Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, pp. 1-48.
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