Protected Areas (2)

Some protected areas management variables are Nature, environment, ecology (71), biology, geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, glaciology (72), physics, sociology, ethnography, history, paleontology, economics, politics, culture, aesthetics, ethics, equity, values, legal agreement (16, 73, 37). Terminological confusion existing between concepts conditions the protocols to be used (15). Sometimes management requires interfering with natural processes in a way that is not included explicitly in plans (67). Planning differs from sustainability in time scale. Only a few countries have been seriously addressing the implications of sustainability. In the context of sustainability regions are more stable than landscapes. In protected areas sustainability involves the proper management of intentional and anthropogenic impacts (11).


    11   R. T. T. FORMAN. 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. CUP, Cambridge (Eng).
    15   A. PHILLIPS. 1998. Working Landscapes and Protected Areas: The Agenda For The 21st Century. In (b): 3-17.
    16   S. WOODLEY & G. FORBES. 1995. Ecosystem Management and Protected Areas: Principles, Problems and Practicalities. In (a): 50-58.
    37   J. J. REYNOLDS & C. SCHONEWALD. 1998. Protected Areas, Science and The 21st Century. In (b): 18-23.
    67   J. M. CAMPBELL, J. G. NELSON. 1998. Earth Sciences and Ecological Integrity: Case Studies in Management. In (b): 492-505.
    71   S. BONDRUP-NIELSEN & T. B. HERMAN. 1995. Long-Term Monitoring of the Environment: Panacea or Placebo!. In (a): 22-26.
    72   J. S. GARDNER. 1998. Geoscience and The Management of Protected Areas and Working Landscapes in Mountain Environments. In (b): 283-294.
    73   E. HIGGS, C. MURRAY, M. NORTON, J.RHEMTULLA, J. ANDERSON & P. GALBRAITH. 1998. Whose Nature Is It? Setting Goals For Ecological Restoration in Jasper National Park. In (b): 781-789.